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Há muitos obstáculos a transpor para que o livro se torne um artigo de fácil acesso, de presença constante na realidade da maioria das pessoas, tomando lugar na mesa do café, na cabeceira da cama, ou na prateleira da estante; atraindo o olhar para as vitrines das livrarias e dos sebos; ou motivando uma descontraída visita a biblioteca. Mas seria possível sonhar com um país de leitores?

Cada vez que algu√©m abre um livro, uma janela se abre nessa dire√ß√£o. Da√≠ a import√Ęncia de tornar a leitura um h√°bito presente no cotidiano de casa e sala de aula. Em contato com textos infantis e infanto-juvenis, as crian√ßas e os jovens descobrem outros mundos abertos ao l√ļdico, √† imagina√ß√£o e √† consci√™ncia de mundo. Os livros os transportam para reinos encantados e desencantados, onde podem habitar por alguns momentos e, dessa estada, experimentar as mais variadas sensa√ß√Ķes.

O texto liter√°rio possui, al√©m do valor est√©tico, outras dimens√Ķes abertas √† explora√ß√£o de cada leitor.¬†O livro infantil, em especial, tem o privil√©gio de conter duas esp√©cies de narrativa ‚Äď a textual e a imag√©tica ‚Äď o que acentua seu potencial de explora√ß√£o. √Č poss√≠vel contar e recontar o enredo por diferentes trilhas sem a perda do elemento surpresa e das possibilidades de interpreta√ß√£o.

Monteiro Lobato, revolucion√°rio

Mas ainda hoje, mesmo com seus desdobramentos, a literatura infantil sofre uma esp√©cie de preconceito, sendo por vezes considerada uma escrita menor por alguns te√≥ricos desavisados. Caminhando na contram√£o, esse segmento continua dando grandes saltos, tanto nos aspectos da autoria, riqueza textual e recep√ß√£o ‚Äď com o aparecimento de mais profissionais no mercado e a conquista de um maior n√ļmero de leitores ‚Äď, bem como no avan√ßo de t√©cnicas de produ√ß√£o (pop-ups, scanimations, recursos sonoros) capazes de atrair at√© mesmo os olhares e ouvidos daqueles mais distra√≠dos.

No Brasil, quando se fala em livro infantil, salta do senso comum a figura de Monteiro Lobato. Sem sombra de d√ļvida, ele √© um marco no ramo editorial, tendo assumido os pap√©is de¬†escritor, editor e distribuidor, √† frente de empreendimentos de sucesso como a Companhia Editora Nacional. Lobato soube captar as tend√™ncias mundiais, implantando m√©todos de produ√ß√£o novos para o pa√≠s, como a ado√ß√£o da capa ilustrada e a cria√ß√£o de uma grande rede de distribui√ß√£o e circula√ß√£o, formada por intelectuais, amigos e livreiros. Um desses m√©todos, por sinal curioso, era o envio de circulares para v√°rias cidades, solicitando a pol√≠ticos e pessoas conhecidas endere√ßos de pontos de venda onde pudesse escoar sua produ√ß√£o. E do seu networking, nem mesmo o a√ßougue escapava.

Se a personagem Narizinho tinha o nariz arrebitado, Lobato, seu criador, era dono de um bom faro editorial. Foi por suas m√£os que surgiram v√°rias cole√ß√Ķes e s√©ries de livros que lan√ßaram seus autores no plano nacional. As s√©ries infantis e did√°ticas tiveram um alcance estrondoso, sendo adotadas pelo sistema p√ļblico e privado de ensino. Ainda hoje a obra desse escritor tem uma consider√°vel repercuss√£o, confirmada pela reedi√ß√£o de seus livros e pelos remakes de epis√≥dios para TV de O S√≠tio do Pica-pau Amarelo, baseados nos seus enredos. Aqui est√£o algumas demonstra√ß√Ķes do potencial criador deste autor-s√≠mbolo, festejado todos os anos no Dia Nacional do Livro Infantil, 18 de abril, data de seu nascimento.

Pensar a literatura infantil al√©m de Lobato e do Dia do Livro √© um exerc√≠cio de abertura para a riqueza desse universo. Antes e depois dele, outros autores¬†e autoras se lan√ßaram ao of√≠cio de escrever livros infantis e buscar formas permanentes de aproxima√ß√£o com o p√ļblico, tomando, muitas vezes, caminhos desafiadores. √Č o caso, na atualidade, da escritora Lygia Bojunga que, depois de conquistar pr√™mios internacionais de peso no segmento infantil e juvenil (Hans Christian Andersen e Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award ‚Äď ALMA), decidiu¬†abrigar sua produ√ß√£o no selo Casa Lygia Bojunga. Quem sabe, talvez, cansada de um mercado editorial em que o autor parece ser quem menos recebe pelos direitos da cria√ß√£o.

A ousadia de Lygia Bojunga no mercado editorial

A aventura de produzir livros para crian√ßas continua febril como na √©poca de Lobato. O Brasil √©, hoje, uma refer√™ncia nesse segmento liter√°rio, tendo um mercado interno bem movimentado por uma rede de editoras com alto grau de profissionaliza√ß√£o e concentrada nas capitais e metr√≥poles, convivendo com uma produ√ß√£o independente distribu√≠da em todo o territ√≥rio. √Č impressionante tamb√©m a circula√ß√£o de t√≠tulos fora do pa√≠s, em tradu√ß√Ķes que percorrem vitrines de feiras internacionais, como a de Bolonha e Frankfurt.

Seria imposs√≠vel citar aqui todos os autores, mas talvez voc√™, leitor, j√° tenha ouvido falar de nomes como Ana Maria Machado, Pedro Bandeira, Ruth Rocha, Elias Jos√©, Sylvia Orthof, Ziraldo, Tatiana Belink, √āngela Lago e Maur√≠cio de Sousa. Ao lado dessa lista can√īnica, outros autores despontam na cena nacional, afinal, o trem da hist√≥ria n√£o pode parar. Lenice Pimentel, Jonas Ribeiro, Andr√© Neves, Cl√©o Busatto, Giba Pedroza, Celso Cisto, Almir Mota, Benita Prieto, Daniel Munduruku s√£o alguns dos escritores que, tomando lugar no tabuleiro, formam uma nova conjuntura da literatura infantil brasileira.

Contando a nossa história
Em Alagoas, embora incipiente em termos quantitativos e tecnol√≥gicos, a produ√ß√£o liter√°ria vem sendo conduzida pelas m√£os de escritores e ilustradores com estilos diferentes de contar suas hist√≥rias. A produ√ß√£o atual est√° aberta a diferentes interpreta√ß√Ķes, fugindo do moralismo e do didatismo que por muito tempo povoaram boa parte da literatura brasileira e universal feita para crian√ßas.¬†Por aqui, a escrita de textos para os pequenos teve o caminho iniciado por nomes como Ros√°lia Sandoval (Curso elementar de portugu√™s, gram√°tica infantil), Graciliano Ramos (A terra dos meninos pelados), Hildebrando de Lima (Li√ß√Ķes do tio Em√≠lio, pela Companhia Editora Nacional) e Judas Isgorogota (Um passeio na floresta e Sapatinhos de prata). Estes √ļltimos eram, por sinal, muito amigos de Monteiro Lobato. No entanto, tendo esses autores consolidado sua trajet√≥ria em outros estados do Brasil, suas obras, √† exce√ß√£o dos escritos do Mestre Gra√ßa, ficaram, praticamente, desconhecidas pelas novas gera√ß√Ķes.

D√©cadas depois, nos anos 90, surge um divisor de √°guas: a apari√ß√£o da escritora Ruth Quintella. O conjunto de sua obra inaugura e melhor representa a fase contempor√Ęnea de nossa literatura infantil. Apesar dos cabelos brancos e do corpo franzino, ela vive numa inquietude permanente, utilizando a experi√™ncia adquirida ao longo do tempo como professora para disseminar o prazer de ler, assumindo, simultaneamente, os pap√©is de autora, ilustradora e contadora de hist√≥rias.

Da√≠ por diante, novos fios coloridos v√£o se tecendo na grande renda de palavras e imagens de nossa literatura. Com textos em forma de conto ou poesia, fazem parte dessa rede autoras como F√°tima Maia, Luciana Fonseca, Cleo Soares, Socorro Cunha, Marij√īse Albuquerque, Juanina Ribeiro, Claudia Lins, Regina Barbosa, Isv√Ęnia Marques, Maristela Pozitano, Sara Albuquerque, Eliana Maria, Ad√©lia Souto, Luana Teixeira, Geisa Andrade, Leonardo Pimentel, Tiago Amaral, Ricardo Cab√ļs, Luiz Alberto Machado, Di√≥genes Ten√≥rio, Daniel Libardi.

Ilustração de Pedro Lucena no livro Marina Traquina

Se no texto de literatura infantil as imagens tamb√©m contam hist√≥rias, quem ilustra divide espa√ßo de coautoria do livro nas dimens√Ķes visual e narrativa. E nesse sentido, √© mais do que justo destacar ilustradores como Pedro Lucena, Weber Salles, Ddaniela Aguilar, Eduardo Menezes, Paulo Caldas, Yuri √Āvila, Nataska Conrado, Wagner Bagetti, Vick, Claudio Jorge, Bruno Cl√©riston, Thiago Oli, Chris K, Emanoel Melo, Jefesson Henrique e o Est√ļdio Alba. Em cada trabalho, eles buscam combinar seu conhecimento visual com o uso de diferentes t√©cnicas e recursos ‚Äď aquarela, pintura a l√°pis de cor, manipula√ß√£o digital, acr√≠lica sobre papel.

Sem editoras comerciais, os autores independentes financiam sozinhos os custos de publica√ß√£o do seu livro, e uma minoria consegue patroc√≠nio em editais federais estaduais e empresas privadas. Parte dessa produ√ß√£o √© absorvida pela Cole√ß√£o Coco de Roda, mantida pela editora da Imprensa Oficial. Mas falta ainda uma pol√≠tica p√ļblica de promo√ß√£o, aquisi√ß√£o e circula√ß√£o de livros que, enraizada na educa√ß√£o, valorize as produ√ß√Ķes locais, regionais e nacionais.

Indo na contram√£o, organiza√ß√Ķes sem fins lucrativos como o Sesc desenvolvem cursos, oficinas e encontros liter√°rios. A ONG O√°sis, com seu projeto Ba√ļ de Leitura, vem atuando com forma√ß√£o de contadores de hist√≥rias em Palmeira dos √ćndios e outros munic√≠pios do agreste. Em Macei√≥, a ONG Ide√°rio realiza a√ß√Ķes de leitura em grotas, enquanto, em ¬†Pia√ßabu√ßu, o Ponto de Cultura Olha o Chico aposta nas rodas de conta√ß√£o. Essas institui√ß√Ķes difundem o gosto pela leitura de textos infantis em √°reas de vulnerabilidade humana ou em lugares com baixo acesso a equipamentos culturais.

Ciente de sua responsabilidade social, a ONG Teteia, voltada para a forma√ß√£o cidad√£, vem tomar lugar tamb√©m na lista de institui√ß√Ķes preocupadas com a leitura. Contando com o apoio do BNDES, do Banco do Nordeste e do Governo Federal, a organiza√ß√£o abra√ßou o projeto Trem das dez ‚Äď leitura a todo vapor, que consiste na distribui√ß√£o de ¬†caixas de leitura contendo dez livros de autoras e autores alagoanos e a realiza√ß√£o de oficinas de conta√ß√£o de hist√≥rias e de capacita√ß√£o sobre t√©cnicas de leitura liter√°ria.

Autores do Projeto Trem das Dez

Com a realiza√ß√£o do projeto, no primeiro semestre deste ano, 3.500 exemplares de livros ser√£o distribu√≠dos gratuitamente para escolas p√ļblicas de Macei√≥ e Marechal Deodoro. Fazem
parte da caixa os livros: A casa da reina√ß√£o, de Tiago Amaral, A bela bruxa Lilita, de Ruth Quintella, No reino de Bilinguindone, de Claudia Lins, O gato e o rato de Socorro Cunha, O sequestro de Chiquita, de Leonardo Pimentel, Uma beb√™ imposs√≠vel – que saudade da vov√≥, de Luciana Fonseca, Ventania e o mapa do tesouro, de minha autoria, Tatibitati e os mitos da mata, de F√°tima Maia e A galinha saudosa, de Ricardo Cab√ļs.

Al√©m da circula√ß√£o via projetos culturais, algumas produ√ß√Ķes circulam nas pouqu√≠ssimas livrarias de Alagoas e fora do Estado, quando recebem selos de editoras regionais e nacionais. Por outro lado, seja pela atua√ß√£o individual dos autores ou pelo trabalho de educadores e distribuidores, parte dessa produ√ß√£o vem tomando, aos poucos, lugar nas salas de leitura e bibliotecas de escolas p√ļblicas e privadas.¬†Pelo sistema de ado√ß√Ķes, muitos autores v√™m incluindo seus livros nos planejamentos pedag√≥gicos das escolas, havendo em abril uma grande concentra√ß√£o de convites para que participem de feiras liter√°rias e bate-papos com as crian√ßas. Mas o livro n√£o deveria estar na escola e na vida como o p√£o de cada dia, servido durante todo o ano em projetos tomados de conta√ß√£o de hist√≥rias e visitas a biblioteca, a exemplo de a√ß√Ķes como L√™ pra mim?, Hist√≥rias da Tia Fel√≠cia e Leitor Nota 100.

Se h√° livros, como formar mais leitores?

Para chegar √†s m√£os dos pequenos leitores, o livro infantil percorre uma cadeia produtiva com v√°rias etapas, impulsionada por a√ß√Ķes como as pol√≠ticas de aquisi√ß√£o e circula√ß√£o do livro do Minist√©rio da Educa√ß√£o (MEC), o Plano Nacional do Livro e Leitura (PNLL), os selos de recomenda√ß√£o da Funda√ß√£o Nacional do Livro Infantil e Juvenil (FNLIJ) e os editais e concursos liter√°rios. Mas o acesso limitado e a falta de est√≠mulo √† leitura ainda s√£o problemas a serem enfrentados para que a leitura liter√°ria se torne um h√°bito consolidado no pa√≠s e, em Alagoas, particularmente.

Se os programas do MEC para compra de livros funcionam como apregoam as propagandas governamentais, como saber de que modo esse acervo est√° sendo utilizado em sala de aula? Ser√° que existem a√ß√Ķes de leitura efetivas e sistem√°ticas, ou as bibliotecas continuam sendo fechadas a cadeado como dep√≥sito de livros? As crian√ßas podem circular livremente nas salas e cantos de leitura, ou devem ficar l√° na hora do recreio como puni√ß√£o pelo mau comportamento? O livro de fic√ß√£o infantil tem espa√ßo garantido nas prateleiras, ou d√£o lugar unicamente a textos did√°ticos? Os professores insistem em ensinar literatura como meio de explora√ß√£o de aspectos da l√≠ngua portuguesa ou como linguagem isenta de qualquer obrigatoriedade?

Como diz o escritor Saramago, ‚ÄúTudo no mundo est√° dando respostas, o que demora √© o tempo das perguntas?‚ÄĚ. Questionar a pr√°tica da cultura liter√°ria no ambiente escolar ajuda a compreender por que o ato de abrir um simples livro de contos de fada, folhe√°-lo e interpret√°-lo, para muitos, parece ser algo distante ou tr√°gico. Ao falar de livros infantis, a sele√ß√£o dos melhores e mais apropriados conte√ļdos n√£o caminha sem a discuss√£o da forma como essas hist√≥rias tocam o imagin√°rio e o repert√≥rio diferenciado de saberes dos alunos.

Marize Sarmento, do grupo Contadores das Carochinhas

A explora√ß√£o de novos sentidos no conte√ļdo lido pela crian√ßa, a capacidade de alargar seu olhar para a rela√ß√£o da obra no tempo e lugar, a liga√ß√£o dela ao fio do encantamento de uma
hist√≥ria para toda a vida, dependem da condu√ß√£o de v√°rios fatores. Um deles √© preparar educadores e bibliotec√°rios para o desafio da media√ß√£o de leitura. A Biblioteca P√ļblica de Alagoas e de outros estados, apoiadas pelo Programa Nacional de Incentivo √† Leitura (Proler), j√° vem realizando semin√°rios e cursos nessa dire√ß√£o. O Sesc e grupos como a Trupe Gog√≥ da Ema, Contadores das Carochinhas e Trupe Navegantes, preocupam-se em difundir t√©cnicas de contar hist√≥rias.

Mas chama a atenção o fato de poucas universidades e faculdades apostarem na literatura infantil e juvenil como disciplina de curso. Afinal, sem os recursos da formação, como os educadores saberão empregar métodos cativantes para a conquista de novos leitores? E de modo mais absurdo, como justificar o fechamento de bibliotecas escolares para darem lugar a laboratórios de ciência, sala de aula e outros fins, como aconteceu, no ano passado, com a Biblioteca do Centro Educacional de Pesquisas Aplicadas (Cepa)?

Da√≠ a urg√™ncia de marcos regulat√≥rios, como a cria√ß√£o de planos nacionais e leis estaduais de incentivo ao livro e √† leitura, como o fez os estados da Para√≠ba, Pernambuco e Cear√°. Dessa forma, escritores, leitores, editores, distribuidores, livreiros, educadores e agentes liter√°rios, ter√£o mais for√ßa para cobrar dos governantes investimentos permanentes na √°rea. A lei impede o fechamento de bibliotecas e motiva novas inaugura√ß√Ķes; incentiva a formula√ß√£o de projetos de leitura; e impulsiona a revis√£o de algumas metodologias ultrapassadas no cotidiano da escola p√ļblica e privada que, longe de contribu√≠rem para a forma√ß√£o de novos leitores, criam um fosso entre as crian√ßas e os livros.

Enquanto as mudan√ßas caminham, a pesquisa Retratos da Leitura no Brasil, do Instituto Pr√≥-Livro, prestes a alcan√ßar sua terceira edi√ß√£o ainda este m√™s, vem apontando alguns dados positivos nos √ļltimos anos. Primeiro, √© o fato de a leitura ser entendida como algo prazeroso para a faixa et√°ria de crian√ßas at√© seis anos de idade. Segundo √© a influ√™ncia das m√£es no gosto dos filhos pelos livros; √†s vezes, utilizando somente a oralidade como via, considerando que muitas delas nem conclu√≠ram os estudos. Ler ou contar de mem√≥ria hist√≥rias dentro de casa, bem como investir em projetos sistem√°ticos de leitura na sala de aula, s√£o passos decisivos para o ingresso da crian√ßa numa esp√©cie de cidadania liter√°ria.

Ilustração de Pedro Lucena

Essa cidadania nada mais √© do que o seu direito de ter acesso a livros, de fic√ß√£o, sobretudo, em diferentes g√™neros e suportes, do papel ao meio digital; de poder curtir momentos prazerosos de descoberta das hist√≥rias, sem se submeter a m√©todos tradicionais que insistem em associar literatura com exerc√≠cios de gram√°tica ou a question√°rios limitadores, verdadeiros ‚Äúpurgantes‚ÄĚ e ‚Äúp√≠lulas‚ÄĚ que nem mesmo Jeca Tatu ou Em√≠lia, personagens famosos de Lobato, teriam coragem de provar.

Se tem um voc√°bulo capaz de responder o que √© literatura, seja para crian√ßa ou para adulto, √© a palavra liberdade. E tudo leva a crer: a liberdade de escolha e interpreta√ß√£o de obras, a cria√ß√£o de leis efetivas, a conviv√™ncia com os livros nos espa√ßos da vida p√ļblica e privada, s√£o janelas abertas para a democratiza√ß√£o da leitura liter√°ria no Brasil.

Texto publicado pela primeira vez no Caderno Contexto, do Jornal Tribuna de Alagoas.

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